TRANEVÅR & KONSTRUNDAN 2020 AFLYST / INNSTÄLLD PGA. EPIDEMI

16. januar 2020

Visiting the Sunda Region 2019-2020

Garnet Pitta. When calling the bird stretches its neck and seemingly squeezes its breast sides with the wings.

I hereby present a checklist with observations from two visits to the Sunda Region undertaken in January 2019 and in Decembre 2019-January 2020. Singapore, Malaysia, and the Indonesian island Bintan were visited. My previous experience with this region was very limited - a single day visit to Tangkoko on Sulawesi, in between flights, was the closest I had come - so I put an effort into getting acquainted with some of the natural features of the region. Some key habitats, such as lowland dipterocarp forest, coastal forest, and mangrove were visited. 

I have during 2018-2019 been involved in the EASA Campaign Silent Forest, undertaking assignments for Zoo Copenhagen in collaboration with Jessica Lee Hjort. The Silent Forest Campaign adresses the so called Asian Song Bird Crises - the tradition of keeping birds as pets, which has gotten completely out of control, so that species once common, such as Straw-headed Bulbul, are now critically endangered. Apart from my general bird- and nature interest the things learned from the involvement in this campaign certainly gave me an additional frame for appreciating the bird life encountered. With that in mind the effectively protected Taman Negara stood out as a reference point as to how numerous and confiding some of the most heavily poached species should really be.

After having spend quite some time in neotropical forest ecosystems these two visits to the Sunda Region presented a very interesting opportunity to draw parallels and note differences. A very obvious difference is, that while the Neotropical forests boast a number of very colorful tanagers, that often form the core in bird waves, this niche in the Sunda Region seems to be largely occupied by an army of very timidly colored bulbuls. On the contrary the ground dwelling species in the Neotropics tend to be very drab in coloration, but some of their Sunda-counterparts are among the most colorful bird species at all. Here I think namely of the pittas, of which I at long last succeded in seeing one - a stunning Garnet Pitta, which was lured out of its hiding place deep in a thicket after having had a whistled halfhour long conversation with my Guide Roslan.

Below are a couple of words on some of the areas visited.

TAMAN NEGARA - Pahang, Malaysia

"Boardwalk" (actually metal) - trail near Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara. This photo also shows the rather open forest floor - and two female Malay Crested Firebacks.
Taman Negara is quite simply an outstanding place. The lowland forest here is an incredible 130 million years old, an almost unrivalled continuity of forest cover. The forest is dominated by dipterocarps and, as it is actually often the case in tropical lowland forests, the forest floor is rather open. I do know a bit about forest ecology, still it is astonishing to see that the leaf litter is as sparse as it is, not covering the ground completely, and likewise to see how little dead wood there is to be seen laying about. In places the forest floor is covered with pandanus, e.g. on the slopes of Bukit Teresek, and here and there stands of rattan palms block the way. Tree fall gaps are, as always, completely impenetrable and overgrown with climbers, palms, and saplings racing to replace the fallen giant tree.
It is a rather new thing, that the national park has been opened to visitors during the monsoon season. The reason for this is, that the Tembelling River may rise very rapidly, and for this reason only the trails close to the Mutiara Resort are open during this time of year. Going up the stairs from the jetty at Mutiara Resort one passes the place marking the waterlevel of the flood in 1971, almost at the top of the stairs, and since that event the water has come even higher, flooding the restaurant building. Even though more distant parts of the national park, including some of the more famous bumbuns (hides) are out of bounds during the monsoon, the place is well worth visiting.

Visiting Taman Negara is very straight forward. I used Han Travel to get from Kuala Lumpur to Taman Negara and permission to enter the national park was obtained at the Tembelling Jetty, where I also obtained a permission for my cameras. There is a national park office at the Mutiara Resort, and I would be surprised if it wasn't possible also to get the required permits there. It is worth checking, if you plan to arrive to the park in some other way than I did.
Almost all the trails around Mutiara Resort are boardwalks, so contrary to my expectations I had no use for either wellingtons or leech-socks. For me a pair of long trousers stuck into my socks and a pair of sneakers did the job.
At Mutiara the food is delicious, all sorts of activities can be arranged, and the staff is very forthcoming and helpful. E.g. I experienced that they, after closing hours, assisted me in finding a birding guide - Roslan Abu Kassim, whom I can warmly recommend. His father being a park ranger he was born and raised on what is now the grounds of the Mutiara Resort, and from an early age he  accompanied his father, as well as the local hunter-gatherers, the Batek, on their expeditions.
In the evening Roslan insisted on taking me to "Hornbill Valley", an extension of what was already a 10 hour working day for him, and stand to proove his engagement. Roslan and a small group of locally based naturalists are lobbying to ensure legal protection of this rainforest area, situated just across the Tembeling River from Taman Negara proper. Here you have the possibility of overlooking a large tract of rainforest from a high vantage point, and in the evening you have a good chance tof seeing hornbills flying towards their night roosts. Nine species have been recorded including Helmeted Hornbill. We heard Rhinoceros Hornbills, but our efforts of scanning the sky were distracted by a Binturong quietly foraging in a fig tree. The rarity of this observation is illustrated by the fact that the writer and former bird photographer Morten Strange told me, that he had now spend 30 years in the Sunda Region without ever seeing one.

View over "Hornbill Valley", just across the Tembelling River from Taman Negara. The dead tree is a stake out for Black-thighed Falconet - it may just be detectable on the tallest tip of the trident going up to the right of the main trunk.

View from Bukit Teresek.

The natural salt-lick in front of Bumbun Tabing with a Southern Red Muntjak.

PANTI FOREST - Johor, Malaysia


Well inside Panti Forest one reaches the meeting point of the Old Bunker Trail (left) and the new road, that, as far as I have learned, eventually lead to a gravel pit.

Permits are obligatory when visiting Malaysian national parks etc. While this present no obstacles to the visitor to Taman Negara, the case is somewhat different when it comes to Panti Forest. One would expect that the Johor Forestry Department was the authority to contact, but the right way around the problem is to contact the Johor Bird Club. This information here by passed on.
A good access point to Panti Forest is the so called Bunker Trail, an abandoned road leading into the forest from a hilltop with an old Japanese WWII bunker, thus the name. A new road, leading to a gravel pit (allegedly), now exists, leading into the forest some kilometer south of the bunker, eventually meeting the old trail. The trail and the road thus "cut out" a triangle of forest where you can, in theory, roam freely without the otherwise very eminent danger of getting lost. I tried this, and while I was walking in circles through rattan infested mud holes, I was very happy to know, that the longest distance I could possibly walk was a few kilometers. I recommend bringing a compass (don't rely on the one in your cell phone). The Panti Forest is quite swampy with bogs and waterholes. The monsoon season is not the right time of year to look for much sought after species such as Rail Babbler and pittas, they keep silent and therefore almost impossible to detect, but the forest holds much else, such as e.g. Black Magpie, which was seen right at the beginning of the old Bunker Trail. The old Bunker Trail is the traditional site for spotting the Rail Babbler, but for canopy dwelling species the new road may be better. The forest along the old trail is, for a large part, covered with lianas, making it somewhat difficult to see the tree tops. The new road stand out very clear cut through the forest and provide the possibility for one to scan tree tops for hornbills, doves etc.
Some birding was also done along the road Jalan Lombong leading to the waterfall (on the western side of the forest). This was not unproductive, but there is no doubt that spending as much time as possible on the Bunker Trails must be the priority.

Panti Forest has a quite open forest floor in the dryer parts.

A bog along the Old Bunker Trail.




BUKIT TIMAH and CENTRAL CATCHMENT FOREST - Singapore

Sunda Colugo, Bukit Timah.

Bukit Timah today stand as the last surviving remnant of primary forest in Singapore. Like Taman Negara the forest is dominated by dipterocarps. It is a very small forest patch, but Singapore is putting a big effort into reafforestation and despite the minute size of the country several areas are now returning to a state so close to natural, that it requiers some botanical knowledge to detect the difference. North and west of Bukit Timah one finds the Central Catchment Forest. In Birds - a Photographic Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, Sun Tree Publishing 1993, it is stated that "some of the secondary forest has been regenerating for over 100 years"- by now you can add quite a few years to that. One can only hope, that at least some of the forest bird species, that has disappeared from Singapore during the 20 th. century will react positively to the good habitat and recolonize the Garden City. A good access point to the Catchment Forest is Windsor Nature Park. Here you can choose either a short loop or a longer trek, eventually leading you to the Tree Top Walk, and beyond.
Singapore nature parks boast outstanding nature interpretation signs, pointing out anything from small fish in the forest streams to large tree species - I have often photographed them, to carry them along as a supplement to my field guides.

Bukit Timah is the place where the allied forces made their last stand during the Japanese invasion. My grandfather, Hans Tofte was among the last allied soldiers to leave the island. Not that he was fleeing; being a danish citizen he was prevented from entering allied forces as a regular, and in stead he was trained at Tanjong Balai (now an area occupied by Singapore Harbour) as an undercover agent. Together with other Scandinavians he was assigned to keeping the Burma Road open and supplying the Chinese Forces weapons and equipment. Their departure from Singapore happened to be scheduled for the very day of the Japanese attack, and driving from down town Singapore to the airport they had to take sudden cover in a ditch, as their car was attacked by a Japanese fighter plane. Miraculously they managed to get away, and they certainly lived to fight an other day - but that is a whole different story.

Nephila sp, Bukit Timah


SUNGEI BULOH - Singapore


Mangrove at Sungei Buloh - note the Saltwater Crocodile.

The mangrove forest and tidal mud flats at Sungei Buloh used to attract thousands of migrant waders and terns. According to the former, but still famous, nature photographer Morten Strange this, for some unknown reason, stopped around ten years ago. Now these migrants have become rather scarse. If the sudden lack of northern migrants has something to do with the locality itself, or has something to do with the problems facing the birds that use the eastern flyway - or maybe both - is not a settled matter. The area still host many fish eating birds, not least herons, as well as mangrove specialties. Among the latter e.g. Ashy Tailorbird and the very handsome Copper-throated Sunbird. The fish life is rich, Half Beaks, Puffer Fishes and Archerfishes abound, and several species of Mudskippers can be spotted. An other attraction, especially popular with the kids, are the Saltwater Crocodiles, which can be seen sunbathing at the waters edge at low tide.

Whimbrels roosting at Sungei Buloh at high tide. Part of a flock of 105. Note the marked bird bottom, left.


One of the mangrove specialties of Sungei Buloh, a Copper-throated Sunbird.


PULAU BINTAN - Riau Islands, Indonesia

Telukbakua, Bintan. NB we are not collecting, it was all catch and release. Mainly Dragonflies and butterflies.

The island Bintan is something of a get-away for Singaporeans. The northern and eastern coasts were visited. The nortern coast is quite wind exposed and dotted with resorts. Between these resorts, it appeared, was quite a lot of forest, not very tall, but seemingly not logged. I don't know, but it seemed to me, that this could possibly be some kind of coastal forest type rather than second growth. I was very ill during the visit to the north coast so not much birding was undertaken. I did manage to drag my self around one morning, and was rewarded with a small group of Silvered Leaf Monkeys, including a small and all buffish-orange youngster clinging to the belly of an adult.
A drive across the island was a study in the devastation of the South-East Asian landscape. Large areas covered only by the fern species that seem to be the only species able to survive the, also very obvious, soil erosion would alter with oil palm plantations. Here and there small pockets of second growth. Not much life at all, and seemingly even rather sparsely populated.
The east coast had large tidal sand flats. Still the only wader seen was a Common Sandpiper. At least one Great Crested Tern patrolled the coast. A little more birdlife was to be found inland from the resort, the best observation being an adult male Crimson Sunbird.
What was really astonishing was how intensively the coast was being exploited for fishery and sea food collecting. All sorts of fishery was going on, and at low tide the sand flats were invaded by people collecting shellfish and crustaceans. I took a whole series of photographs of the various fishing- and collecting techniques.
With this said it is easy to understand that a visit to a near by coral reef did not reveal anything that could rival Bunaken. Still some very fine small fishes were seen (the big ones were to be found in a net attached to the kelong - a put-and take arrangement).

I know that my description of Bintan may sound rather grim. I have to stress that I do not intend to pick on the hard working people of Bintan, rather I would like to encourage the many tourists visiting the island to ask for activities that support a sustainable and nature-friendly development of the tourist industry. The coral reef put and take e.g. is appaling, but the reefs are there and has great potential. There are good birds to be found and the Leaf Monkeys are fabulous - they were actually seen inside the grounds of Club Med, and could easily be boasted as a mascot for the island. I do hope that part of the tourist money flow in the direction of the islanders, it is without doubt so, still the poverty is striking and it is obvious how hard people work to make ends meet.


Fishery on the east coast of bintan. The guy in the white shirt is laying out a net, the other is either doing the same or collecting shellfish. Behind them are two stationary fishing structures.


A Bintan gass-station. I can't make my self stand right there in the middle of a village and pull out a camera, but I really wanted a picture of this D.I.Y gass station, so this shot is a "camouflaged spy-shot", and will have to do. The gasoline is under the red and white structure, which again has a little pump on top of it. I presume that the gasoline is in some sort of container - still this is very home-made and very no-smoking. Not even in the poorest tracts of South America have I seen anything as hazardous as this arrangement.
Silvery Langur, Club Med, Bintan. If you think this one is cute you should see the little one.

Litterature:
Insight Guides - Southeast Asia Wildlife, APA Publications 1991 - The back ground information in this book is still relevant,  e.g. the consequences of the rapid urbanisation of Singapore. Also gives descriptions of imprtant localities.

Birds of South-East Asia, concise edition, Helm Field Guides 2005.

Birds - a Photographic Guide to the Birds of Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore, Morten Strange and Allen Jeyarajasingam, Sun Tree Publishing 1993.


                                                             ***

Last but not least this trip report would be incomplete without my warmest thanks to Malin, Ulf and Arvid.

                                                             ***

In the bird list the sequence in Danske Fuglenavne på Alverdens Fugle, Dansk Ornitologisk Forening 2008 is followed, with the following minor changes: Asian Fairy-Bluebird is placed together with the leafbirds and the falcons are placed between the doves and the parrots.

Other species groups are placed in more or less random order - even thoug the number of species is quite limited I have the idea that the work it would require to sort out the right sequence would be quite overwhelming.


BIRDS

Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus
The Red Junglefowl in Singapore are, as far as I understand, not of pure, wild stock. They are allegedly mixed with escaped birds, and for this theory points the fact that all birds I saw had a white cheek-patch, which is not supposed to be present on the endemic race spadiceus. Still you can't blame the Junglefowl for interbreeding with escapees and these beautiful animals fill their niche in the forest ecosystem as they always have.
2019.01.20 Bukit Timah 1 female; Singapore Botanical Garden 7; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 1 male; 2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1; 2019.12.25 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1 male, 1 female; 2019.12.28 Bumbun Tahan – Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 1 heard

"Kampung Chicken", a wild, but presumably not "purely endemic" Red Junglefowl, Singapore Botanical Garden.

Malay Crested Fireback Lophura rufa
Formerly treated as conspecific with the very differently plumaged L. Ignita of Borneo. I have seen several popular names proposed for the now two species of Crested Fireback, and for L. rufa I think Malay Crested Fireback, as proposed in HBW, is the best option.
2019.12.27 Mutiara Resort/Bumbun Tahan,Taman Negara 3 female, 3 male (all in one group); 2019.12.28 Bumbun Tahan – Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 2 ad male, 1 imm male, 1 female (all in one group); 2019.12.30 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 3 male, 1 female (one group).

Malayan Peacock-Pheasant Polyplectron malacense
2019.12.30 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1 heard

Milky/Painted Stork Mycteria sp
A group of feral Milky- and Painted Storks breed in Sungei Buloh, where they hybridize. Storks of either of these two species seen in Singapore are likely to be of feral origin, and on top of that hybrids.
2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 4; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh ca 10; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 7

Asian Openbill Anastomus oscitans
An invasion of Asian Openbill – seen in their hundreds - in Singapore drew headlines around christmas 2019. I did not put an effort into looking for them, but a very distant flock of large birds (ca 50) soaring in the manner of storks (randomly among each other) seen 2019.12.26 Changi Airport is very likely to be this species. Eventually, waiting for a plane in Kuala Lumpur Airport on 2019.12.30 chance would have that I spotted first 28 and later 140 soaring Openbills; a very rare observation in Malaysia.
2019.12.30 Kuala Lumpur Airport 28, 140

One out of at least 140 Asian Openbills, Kuala Lumpur Airport

Little Heron Butorides striata javanica
2019.01.19 Gardens by the Bay, Singapore 1; 2019.01.20 Kai Seng Garden, Evans Rd, Singapore 1; 2019.01.23 Telukbakua, Bintan 1; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 3; 2019.12.26 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.26 Changi Airport 1; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 3

Pond-Heron sp Ardeola sp
2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 1; 2020.01.04 Marina Bay, Singapore 1

Eastern Cattle Egret Bubulcus coromandus
2019.01.31 Tampines, Singapore 2

Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 2, 1 dead; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 15; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 1+

Great-billed Heron Ardea sumatrana
2019.01.22 Telukbakua, Bintan 1

Great Egret Ardea alba
2019.01.26 Johor Bahru 2; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 10+; 2020.01.02 Woodlands, Singapore 1; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 15+

Intermediate (Yellow-billed) Egret Egretta intermedia
Elsewhere also placed in Ardea or Mesophoyx.
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 3; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 10+

Little Egret Egretta garzetta
2019.01.20 Kai Seng Garden, Evans Road, Singapore 1; 2019.01.21 Telukbakua, Bintan 1; 2019.01.22 3; 2019.01.23 1; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 20+; 2019.12.27 Tembeling River 1; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 20+

Pacific Reef-Egret Egretta sacra
2019.01.21-23 Telukbakua, Bintan 1

Oriental Honey-Buzzard Pernis ptilorhyncus
2019.01.23 Telukbakua, Bintan 1; 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 1+; 2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1imm; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 2; 2019.12.26 Katong, Singapore 1 ad; 2020.01.09 Katong, Singapore 1

Black-winged Kite Elanus caeruleus
2019.01.31 Pulau Ubin 1; 2019.12.30 Kuala Lumpur Airport 1

Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus
2019.01.20 East-coast Park, Singapore 1; 2019.01.21 Telukbakua, Bintan 1ad, 1 imm; 2019.01.21 2; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 1; 2019.01.31 Pulau Ubin 1; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 1; 2020.01.08 Club Med, Bintan 1; 2020.01.09 Katong, Singapore 1

White-bellied Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster
2019.01.19 Gardens by the Bay, Singapore 1 imm; 2019.01.21 Telukbakua, Bintan 1 ad; 2019.01.21 1; 2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 1; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 1 ad; 2019.01.31 Pulau Ubin 1 imm, 1; 2019.12.26 Changi Airport 3; 2020.01.02 Woodlands, Singapore 3 – photo; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 3; 2020.01.04 Marina Bay, Singapore 1; 2020.01.09 Katong, Singapore 1

Grey-headed Fish Eagle Ichthyophaga ichthyaetus
2020.01.03 Springleaf Nature Park, Singapore 1

Crested Serpent Eagle Spilornis cheela
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 2; 2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1 heard

Hawk sp Accipiter sp
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 1 – a very brief glimpse.

Changeable (=Crested) Hawk-Eagle Spizaetus cirrhatus
Confusingly called Changeable H. In Birds of South-East Asia and Crested H. by other sources.
2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 1

Red-legged Crake Rallina fasciata
2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1 imm

White-breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus
2019.01.20 Singapore Botanical Garden 1; 2019.01.23 Telukbakua, Bintan 1 ad, 3 1/5 grown pull; 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 3; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 1; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 2 ad, 1 2/5 grown pull; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 2 ad, ca 5 1/5 grown pull, 1+ heard

Red-wattled Lapwing Vanellus indicus
2019.12.27 Tembeling River 2, 1

Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 1;2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 105 – among these a marked individual. White “flag” on left tibia with the number E2.

Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos
2019.01.21 Telukbakua, Bintan 1; 2019.01.22 2; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 2; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 1

Great Crested Tern (=Swift Tern) Sterna bergii
2019.01.22-23 Telukbakua, Bintan 1+

Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis
One of the commonest birds in man-altered habitats

Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica
2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1 male; 2019.12.29 close to the camping area Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1 male

Zebra Dove Geopelia striata
In Birds of South-East Asia this bird is called Peaceful Dove, a name that should be reserved for G. placida. Quite common, but due to its confiding nature easy to overlook.

Little Green Pigeon Treron olax
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 3

Pink-necked Green Pigeon Treron vernans
A common bird of gardens and parks in Singapore.
2019.01.22 Telukbakua, Bintan ca 10; 2019.01.23 6; 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 21; 2019.01.25 East Coasdt Park, Singapore 2; 2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 1; 2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1; 2019.01.29 Katong, Singapore 1 male; 2019.01.30 Katong, Singapore 1 female incubating ca 5 m up in small tree. Typical Dove-nest, flimsy, made up of sticks. 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 4; 2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1; 2019.02.01 Katong, Singapore 1 male incubating, same nest as seen 30 January; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.25 Tree Top Walk, Singapore 2 female; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 8

Thick-billed Green Pigeon Treron curvirostra
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara min. 1 male, 1 female; 2019.12.30 Camping area, Mutiara, Taman Negara 15+

Large Green Pigeon Treron capellei
2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara ca 10

Large Green Pigeon

Pied Imperial Pigeon Ducula bicolor
2019.01.22 Telukbakua, Bintan ca 25; 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 22

Pied Imperial- and Pink-necked Green Pigeons

Black-thighed Falconet Microhierax fringillarius
2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara1

Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculus
2019.01.23 Telukbakua, Bintan 1

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
2019.01.20 Marine Parade Rd, Singapore 2; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 1 ad

Tanimbar Corella Cacatua goffiniana
Feral.
2019.01.31 Changi Village 2

Blue-rumped Parrot Psittinus cyanurus
2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 7, 8

Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri
Feral.
2019.02.01 Katong, Singapore 1 juv; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.25 Katong, Singapore 3; 2020.01.01 Katong, Singapore 8; 2020.01.03 Katong, Singapore 5

Red-breasted Parakeet Psittacula alexandri
Feral, several races present.
2019.01.31 Katong, Singapore 2; Changi Village 7; 2019.12.25 Katong, Singapore 3; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 2; 2020.01.01 Katong, Singapore 1

Raffles's Malkoha Rhinortha chlorophaeus
2019.01.28 Panti Forest, New Bunkertrail 1; 2019.12.28 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1 male

Chestnut-breasted Malkoha Phaenicophaeus curvirostris
2019.01.28 Panti Forest, New Bunkertrail 2; 2019.12.29 Bukit Teresek – Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 1

Chestnut-bellied Malkoha Phaenicophaeus sumatranus
2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 2; 2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 5; 2019.12.25 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1; 2019.12.28 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 1

Black-bellied Malkoha Phaenicophaeus diardi
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 2; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, New Bunkertrail 2; 2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1; Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1

Asian Koel Eudynamys scolopaceus
2019.01.20 Singapore Botanical Garden 1 juv: Marine Parade Rd, Singapore 1 ad; 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 1 ad, 1 juv, 1 heard; 2019.01.25 East Coasdt Park, Singapore 2 heard; 2019.12.23 Katong, Singapore 1 heard; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 2; 2019.12.26 Katong, Singapore 2; 2020.01.03 Katong, Singapore 2; Bukit Timah 1; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 2

Grey Nightjar Caprimulgus indicus
Identified thanks to a very lucky sling-shot photograph of the bird in flight.
2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1 male

Especially the tail pattern on this male nightjar, in my eyes, identify it as Grey Nightjar, Panti Forest.

Large-tailed Nightjar Caprimulgus macrurus
2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1 heard, 1

(Black-nest Swiftlet Aerodramus maximus)
Swiftlets were seen commonly over all habitats. Especially numerous were they in Kota Tinggi and over the Tembelling River. As these birds are notoriously hard to identify I only rarly attempted it, but it was obvious, that at least two species were involved: Germain's Swiftlet, and a darker species with among others decidedly grey, not whitish, rump. This species often flew with the tail slightly cocked. My best bet regarding an identification is Black-nest Swiftlet. Photographed on several occations, e.g. Bintan, Pulau Ubin, and Singapore Zoo.

Germain's Swiftlet Aerodramus germani
Formerly treated as a race of Edible-nest Swiftlet A. fuciphagus. Possibly seen in Singapore on several occations. Definately seen only once, when also photographed: 2019.12.30 Jerantut 10+

Silver-rumped Needletail (=Spinetail) Rhaphidura leucopygialis
In Birds of South-East Asia called Needletail, elsewhere called “Spinetail”. I prefer the latter name reserved for Furnarids.
2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort 1

Diard's Trogon Harpactes diardii
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1 h

Scarlet-rumped Trogon Harpactes duvaucelii
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 2

Oriental Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis
2019.01.29 Mandai Rd. Singapore 1; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 1; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.25 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.26 Katong, Singapore 1; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 1

Stork-billed Kingfisher Pelargopsis capensis
2019.12.27 Tembeling River 1; 2019.12.29 Tahan River, Taman Negara 1

White-throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
2019.01.21 drive across Bintan 2; 2019.01.22 Telukbakua, Bintan 1; 2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort 1; 2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 1; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 1; 2019.12.27 Tembeling River 1; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 1

Black-capped Kingfisher Halcyon pileata
2019.12.27 Tembeling River 1

Collared Kingfisher Todirhamphus chloris
2019.01.19 East-coast Park, Singapore 2; 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 2; 2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 2; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 1; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 3; 2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 1

Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1

Blue-tailed Bee-eater Merops philippinus
2019.01.23 Telukbakua, Bintan 2; 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 5; 2020.01.01 Katong, Singapore 1; 2020.01.04 Katong, Singapore 2

Blue-throated Bee-eater Merops viridis
2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 4

Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris convexus
2019.12.30 Camping area, Mutiara, Taman Negara 2

Black Hornbill Anthracoceros malayanus
2019.01.28 Panti Forest, New Bunkertrail 2; 2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 2

Rhinoceros Hornbill Buceros rhinoceros
2019.12.29 Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 1-2 heard; Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 2 heard

White-crowned Hornbill Berenicornis cornatus
2019.12.28 Jenut Muda-trail, Taman Negara 1 imm, 1 h

Lineated Barbet Megalaima lineata
2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 1

Golden-whiskered Barbet Megalaima chrysopogon
2019.12.27 Tembeling Jetty 1; 2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1; 2019.12.30 Camping area, Mutiara, Taman Negara 1

Red-crownrd Barbet Megalaima ralllesii
2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 2 heard

Red-throated Barbet Megalaima mystacophanos
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1; 2019.12.30 Camping area, Mutiara, Taman Negara 1

Blue-eared Barbet Megalaima australis
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1

Sunda Pygmy Woodpecker Dendrocopos moluccensis
2019.12.23 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 1; 2020.01.01 Katong, Singapore 1, 1 heard. Nesting hole ca 2,5 m up in small tree; 2020.01.09 Katong, Singapore 1

Banded Woodpecker Picus mineaceus
2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 2; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 1

Crimson-winged Woodpecker Picus puniceus
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1; 2019.12.28 Jenut Muda-trail, Taman Negara 1

Laced Woodpecker Picus vittatus
2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh 1 heard

Black-and-red Broadbill Cymbirhynchus macrorhynchos
2019.12.29 near Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 4

The bill actually is very broad.

Black-and-Yellow Broadbill Eurylaimus ochromalus
2019.12.28 Jenut Muda-trail, Taman Negara 3 heard; 2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort -Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 7

Garnet Pitta Pitta granatina
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 1 adult, 1 heard

Rufous-winged Philentoma Philentoma pyrhoptera
2019.12.28 Canopy-walk, Taman Negara 1, Jenut Muda-trail, Taman Negara 1

Common Iora Aegithina tiphia
2019.01.20 Singapore Botanical Garden 2; 2019.01.30 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.02.01 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.23 Katong, Singapore 2; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 1

Green Iora Aigithina viridissima
2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1

Pied Triller Lalage nigra
2019.02.01 Katong, Singapore 1

Tiger Shrike Lanius tigrinus
2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 1 female; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 1; 2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort -Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 1 heard

Brown Shrike Lanius cristatus
2019.12.27 Genting Highlands 2 – cold grey-brown upperparts and grey forhead should point towards ssp lucionensis. according to Birds of South-East Asia. Looking at photographs on the web, though, this does not seem 100% reliable, and further it seems that lucionensis should have a deeper and warmer buff color on the under parts than the two birds in question; 2019.12.30 Kuala Lumpur Airport 1

Dark-throated Oriole Oriolus xanthonotus
2019.12.28 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1 female

Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis
Common in gardens, parks, and disturbed woodland, but apparently not so in mature, closed forest. 2019.01.19 Katong, Singapore 6; 2019.01.20 Singapore Botanical Garden 3; 2019.01.22 Telukbakua, Bintan 1 imm; 2019.01.23 1; 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 3; 2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort 1; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh ca 10; 2019.02.01 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 6; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 8; 2019.12.27 Genting Highlands 1; 2020.01.02 Woodlands, Singapore 1; 2020.01.03 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.01.03 Sungei Buloh 3+; 2020.01.08 Club Med, Bintan 3; 2020.01.09 Katong, Singapore 3

Bronzed Drongo Dicrurus aeneus
2019.12.29 Bukit Teresek – Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 1

Lesser Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus remifer
2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 1

Greater Racket-tailed Drongo Dicrurus paradiseus
2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 1; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1; 2019.12.29 Bukit Teresek – Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 2 heard, 1; Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 1

White-throated Fantail Rhipidura albicollis
2019.12.28 Jenut Muda-trail, Taman Negara 1

Pied Fantail Rhipidura javanica
2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 2

Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea
Seen in bird waves with Asian Paradise-Flycatcher and Cream-vented Bulbul, and with Rufous-winged Philentoma, Crimson-winged Woodpecker, and leafbirds. Additionally Black-naped Monarch seems a plausible explanation for an “all blue” bird, at least when seen from above, seen from the Canopy-walk, associated with Rufous-winged Philentoma in the forest mid-storey.
2019.12.28 “Swamp Loop”, Taman Negara 1 male, 1 female; Jenut Muda-trail 1

Asian Paradise-Flycatcher Terpsiphone paradisi
2019.12.28 “Swamp Loop”, Taman Negara 1 female, 1 “tail less”, but apparently eagerly courting bird, which I must presume was indeed a male. The birds were in a bird wave together with, among others, Black-naped Monarch; 2019.12.29 Bukit Teresek – Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 1 male – white morph, with long tail, in a bird wave also encompassing Dark-sided Flycatcher, Chestnut-breasted Malkoha, Bronzed Drongo and Greater Racket-tailed Drongo.

Crested Jay Platylophus galericulatus
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 1-2, 1 close to Mutiara Resort

Black Magpie Platysmurus leucopterus
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1-2

House Crow Corvus splendens
Feral. Very common, especially so in cities (Singapore, Johor Bahru, and Kuala Lumpur).

Large-billed Crow Corvus macrorhynchos
2019.01.21 Telukbakua, Bintan 13+; 2019.01.22 22; 2019.01.23 3; 2019.12.27 Genting Highlands 1; 2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 2

Large-billed Crows were the most numerous birds on the sand flats off Bintan.
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica
Quite common and along the Tembeling River even abundant.
2019.01.22 Telukbakua, Bintan 7; 2019.01.23 10; 2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort common; 2019.12.27 Genting Highlands 50+; Tembeling River – I stopped counting after reaching 80, an estimate is not possible, but saying 500+ would be a conservative statement.

Pacific Swallow Hirundo tahitica
Quite common, but often greatly outnumbered by Barn Swallows.

Red-rumped-/Striated Swallow Cecropis daurica/C. striolata
These birds had shorter tail-streamers than “normal” Red-rumped Swallows, still, I am not familiar with the appearence of this species in mid winter. Though the length of the tail-streamers point towards Striated Swallow I can't support an identification to that species.
2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore ca 20 migrating east; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 3

Common Tailorbird Orthotomus sutorius maculicollis
2019.01.20 Singapore Botanical Garden 1; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 1; 2019.12.27 Tembeling Jetty 1; 2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1

Dark-necked Tailorbird Orthotomus atrogularis
2019.01.23 Telukbakua, Bintan 2

Rufous-tailed Tailorbird Orthotomus sericeus
2019.01.23 Telukbakua, Bintan 1; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 1

Ashy Tailorbird Orthotomus ruficeps
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 1 male, 2

Black-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus atriceps
2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 3

Black-crested Bulbul Pycnonotus melanicterus
Though probably of feral origin my discovery of this bird triggered a twitch among the local birders.
2019.01.20 Bukit Timah 1

Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus
Feral. 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 1; 2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 2

Stripe-throated Bulbul Pycnonotus finlaysoni
2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 2

Yellow-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus goiavier
Common in gardens, parks, and disturbed woodland, but apparently not so in mature, closed forest.
2019.01.19 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.01.20 Singapore Botanical Garden 2; 2019.01.21 Telukbakua, Bintan 5; 2019.01.23 6; 2019.01.25 East Coasdt Park, Singapore 2; 2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort ca 10; 2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1; 2019.02.01 Katong, Singapore 2; 2019.12.23 Katong, Singapore 2; 2019.12.25 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 3; 2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 1; 2020.01.02 Woodlands, Singapore 1; 2020.01.03 Katong, Singapore 3

Olive-winged Bulbul Pycnonotus plumosus
2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort 2; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 1; 2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 2+; 2020.01.08 Club Med, Bintan 2

Cream-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus simplex
2019.01.20 Bukit Timah 1; 2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 3; 2019.12.27 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1; 2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 3; “Swamp Loop”, Taman Negara 1; 2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1

Red-eyed Bulbul Pycnonotus brunneus
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 3

Spectacled Bulbul Pycnonotus erythropthalmos
2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 3

Grey-cheeked Bulbul Criniger bres
2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort -Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 1

Yellow-bellied Bulbul Criniger phaeocephalus
Birds of South-East Asia and HBW places this species in Alophoixus.
2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 2

Hairy-backed Bulbul Tricholestes criniger
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1

Buff-vented Bulbul Iole charlottae crypta
Formerly called Iole olivacea, but name changed to charlottae,
2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 1

Buff-vented Bulbul, Hornbill Valley.

Streaked Bulbul Ixos malaccensis
2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 2; 2019.12.30 Camping area, Mutiara, Taman Negara 1

Arctic Warbler Phylloscopus borealis
2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 1; 2019.12.23 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 1; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 1; Sungei Buloh 1

Eastern Crowned Warbler Phylloscopus coronatus
While the Arctic Warbler can potentially be found in any patch of greenery this highly charismatic warbler seems to prefer the canopy of closed forest.
2019.12.25 Tree Top Walk, Singapore 1 – very good views were had from the Tree Top Walk in the Central Catchment Forest. The bird was in a mixed species feeding party together with Blue-winged Leafbird and Orange-bellied Flowerpecker.

Ferruginous Babbler Trichastoma bicolor
2019.12.30 Camping area, Mutiara, Taman Negara 1

Moustached Babbler Malacopteron magnirostre
2019.12.28 Jenut Muda-trail, Taman Negara 2 – photo and recording; 2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 3-4

Sooty-capped Babbler Malacopteron affine
2019.12.28 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1 ad, 1 imm; 2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort -Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 1

Rufous-crowned Babbler Malacopteron magnum
2019.12.28 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 2

Grey-headed Babbler Stachyris poliocephala
2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort -Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 1 heard

White-necked Babbler? Stachyris leucotis?
2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1 male. The identification of this bird is not clarified. The bird had chestnut brown upperparts and apparently black underparts, a gleaming white supercillium and a very short tail, it was seen quite well, but very briefly, as I simultanously spotted a White-handed Gibbon. The best match seems to be White-necked Babbler male, further this species is allegedly common in Panti Forest.

Black-throated Babbler Stachyris nigricollis
2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 1, 1 heard; 2019.12.30 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1 heard

Striped Tit-babbler Macronous gularis
2019.01.20 Bukit Timah 2; 2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 3; 2019.12.25 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 4

Fluffy-backed Tit-Babbler Macronous ptilosus
2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort -Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 1 heard

Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus
2019.01.30 Katong, Singapore 2+; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 1; 2020.01.01 Katong, Singapore 1; 2020.01.09 Katong, Singapore 2

Asian Glossy Starling Aplonis panayensis
A common bird in disturbed habitats.
2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 14; 2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 1; 2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 2; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 2 juv; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 6; 2019.12.25 Katong, Singapore 2; 2019.12.26 East Coast Park, Singapore 2; 2019.12.27 Genting Highlands 5; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 4; 2020.01.08 Club Med, Bintan 3

Common Hill Myna Gracula religiosa religiosa
2019.01.20 Bukit Timah 1, 3 h; Singapore Botanical Garden 2, 1 h; 2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1; Kota Rainforest Resort 1; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 3; 2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort Taman Negara 1 heard, 5; 2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1 heard; 2019.12.30 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1 heard; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 4

White-vented Myna Acridotheres javanicus
Feral. In Birds of South-East Asia called Javan Myna, while White-vented Myna is applied to Great Myna A. grandis. Probably the commonest bird in Singapore, where it even occurs in the city centre. Possibly this species also seen in Kuala Lumpur and on Bintan.

Jungle Myna Avridotheres fuscus
2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 7

Common Myna Acridotheres tristis
Seen quite commonly in Malaysia and Singapore, still greatly out numbered by the introduced Javan Myna.

Oriental Magpie Robin Copsychus saularis
2019.01.20 Singapore Botanical Garden 1 male; 2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 1; 2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort 1; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 1; 2019.02.01 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.27 Tembeling River 1; Mutiara Resort,Taman Negara 3 male, 3 female, 5; 2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 5; 2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 1; 2019.12.30 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1

White-rumped Shama Copsychus malabaricus
The White-rumped Shama was one of the species that I was especially pleased to finally experience in the wild. The spectacular song of this bird certainly adds a dimension to the sound-scape of the rainforest. Sadly the Shama is among those species that are targeted by poachers catering for the cage-bird trade, which is also the reason why I don't give any details as to the whereabouts of the three Shamas I encountered in Taman Negara.

White-rumped Shama, Taman Negara. Often the struggle to simply see some bird or another keep you busy. That is the normal picture, but now and then you get the chance to be there with the bird for a prolonged period. That is the exception, and after a while it makes me unexplicably restless. I then may begin taking sketches - rejecting this immediatly, because I then look at the paper, not at the bird. I look again, then feel that this actually is the moment to sketch, because this is the chance. The sketches I did take are nothing to brag about, neither this photograph, but this is a White-rumped Shama in its true element, and for me a quite intense experience of being very alive - and this may be the closest I ever come to explaining what birding is all about.

Dark-sided Flycatcher Muscicapa sibirica
2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort 1; 2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort – Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 2

Asian Brown Flycatcher Muscicapa dauurica
A common bird in Singapore parks and gardens. Often discovered by its dry, trilling call.
2019.01.19 Katong, Singapore 2; 2019.01.23 Telukbakua, Bintan 2; 2019.01.25 East Coast Park, Singapore 1; 2019.01.29 Katong, Singapore 1; Singapore Zoo 1; 2019.01.30 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.02.01 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.23 Katong, Singapore 2; 2019.12.24 Katong, Singapore 2; 2019.12.25 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1; 2020.01.04 Marina Bay, Singapore 1

Asian Fairy-Bluebird Irena puella
2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 7; 2019.12.27 Tembeling River 1, 2 male; 2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1 male, 1; 2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 3 male; 2019.12.30 Camping area, Mutiara, Taman Negara 5 male, 1 female; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 1 female, 1 male

Blue-winged Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1 male, 1 female; 2019.12.25 Tree Top Walk, Singapore 1 male; 2019.12.29 Bukit Teresek – Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 2 male, 1 female, 1

Yellow-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus maculatus
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1 male

Crimson-breasted Flowerpecker Prionochilus percussus
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1

Orange-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum trigonostigma
2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 1 male; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, New Bunkertrail 1 male; 2019.12.25 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 2, 1 heard; 2019.12.27 Genting Highlands 1

Scarlet-backed Flowerpecker Dicaeum cruentatum
2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort 2; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, New Bunkertrail 3; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 1 male; 2019.02.01 Katong, Singapore 1 male; 2020.01.03 Katong, Singapore 1 male

Plain Sunbird Anthreptes simplex
2019.01.20 Kai Seng Garden, Evans Road, Singapore 1

Brown-throated Sunbird Anthreptes malacensis
Common, particularly close to the coast, both in Singapore (e.g. 2019.01.19 Katong, Singapore 4 male, 1 female) and on Bintan.
Away from the coast a male and a female of possibly this species were seen at Tembelling Jetty on the way to Taman Negara. As the male bird was seen directly from below the wings were out of view, but the ear coverts were decidedly bronze green, not chestnut, and the malar was ultramarine blue.

Red-throated Sunbird Anthreptes rhodolaemus
2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort 1 male; 2019.01.28 Kota Rainforest Resort 1 male; 2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1 female

Copper-throated Sunbird Leptocoma calcostetha
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 1 male, 1 female

Olive-backed Sunbird Cinnyris jugularis
Very common in gardens, parks, and disturbed woodland. In Singapore even in places like e.g. Little India - a TV-antenna will do as song post, as long as there are flowers to feed in. In Taman Negara only seen on the grounds of Mutiara Resort and in Kuala Tahan. Also very common on Bintan. Highest count: 2019.01.20 Singapore Botanical Garden 7

Crimson Sunbird Aethopyga siparaja
2019.01.23 Telukbakua, Bintan 1 ad male; 2019.12.25 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1 ad male, in addition probably a male and a female seen very briefly fluttering in the canopy.

Spiderhunter sp Arachnothera sp
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1 – Not one of the two species I succeded in identifying. Field notes say: possibly Long-billed S. Extremely large species, almost as big as a Starling. Yellow vent, whitish belly, legs pinkish (apparently). Unfortunately seen at the very same time that a Black Magpie appeared.

Grey-breasted Spiderhunter Arachnotera modesta
2019.12.28 Jenut Muda-trail, Taman Negara 1+ heard; Mutiara Resort,Taman Negara 2; 2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing – Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1 heard

Streaked Spiderhunter Arachnothera magna
2019.01.28 Panti Forest, New Bunkertrail 1

Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus
Common around human habitation and activities, ranging from the grounds of Mutiara Rainforest Resort in Taman Negara to down town Singapore.

Baya Weaver Ploceus philippinus
2020.01.03 Sungei Buloh ca 10 nests but no birds seen.

Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata
2019.01.31 Katong, Singapore 1; 2019.12.27 Jerantut 2, many heard; 2020.01.02 Woodlands, Singapore 2


MAMMALS

Common Tree Shrew Tupaia glis
2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 2-3

White-handed Gibbon Hylobates lar
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail several heard; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1, 2 flocks heard; 2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort -Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara flock heard, 1+ heard

Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularis
Seems to be common and quite well adapted to cope with human presence and activities. The numbers below often represent several groups. Long-tailed Macaques are even seen quite regularly driving through Malaysia, including quite a few road kills.
2019.01.20 Bukit Timah 5; 2019.01.26 Kota Rainforest Resort 9; 2019.01.27 Kota Rainforest Resort 23; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, New Bunkertrail 1; Kota Tinggi 1; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 7; 2019.01.31 Pulau Ubin 1; 2019.12.25 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 35+; 2019.12.27 Jerantut 1; Mutiara Resort,Taman Negara 14; 2019.12.28 Taman Negara 46+; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 3; 2020.01.08 Club Med, Bintan 3+ – chased a Silvery Leaf Monkey up a tree trunk.

Long-tailed Macaque.

Banded Leaf Monkey Presbytis femoralis
Other common names are Raffles's Banded Langur, Banded Langur, Banded Surili and Banded Leaf Monkey. The name I have chosen from this collection of monikers has the advantage that it at least let's one know, that the animal in question is in fact a monkey.
2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 2+

Dusky Leaf Monkey Trachypithecus obscurus
Other common name: Dusky Langur.
2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort -Bukit Teresek, Taman Negara 1

Silvery Leaf Monkey Trachypithecus cristatus
Other common name: Silvery Lutung.
2020.01.08 Club Med, Bintan 2-3 ad, 1 small pull

Silvery Leaf Monkey

Sunda Colugo Galeopterus variegatus
2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 2; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 1

Fruit-Bat sp
Fruit Bats seen on many occations, e.g. at night around fruiting trees. Seen on day roost on the following occations:
2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 100+; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 50+

Fruit Bats.

House Shrew Suncus murinus
2019.01.30 Katong, Singapore 2

Norway Rat Rattus norvegicus
2019.01.20 Gardens by the Bay, Singapore 1 dead

Plantain Squirrel Callosciurus notatus
Very common in Singapore, on Bintan, and in Taman Negara.
Plantain Squirrel

Grey-bellied Squirrel Callosciurus caniceps
2019.12.27 Mutiara Resort,Taman Negara 1; 2019.12.29 Kuala Tahan, Taman Negara 1

Slender Squirrel Sundasciurus tenuis
2019.01.20 Bukit Timah 1; 2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 1; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1; 2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1; 2019.12.25 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1; 2019.12.29 Bukit Teresek – Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 1; 2020.01.03 Bukit Timah 2

Slender Squirrel at Bukit Timah.

Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata
2019.01.24 Chinese Garden, Singapore 1; 2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 2


This animal I have identified as a Smooth-coated Otter, it simply seemed so big. Looking at this photograph I feel not as convinced. Could this be a Small-clawed Otter?

Binturong Arctictis binturong
2019.12.29 Hornbill Valley, Taman Negara 1 - raiding a fruiting fig-tree in the early evening, while being harassed by Large Green Pigeons.

Binturong in fig tree, Hornbill Valley, just outside Taman Negara.


Malayan Civet Viverra tangalunga
2019.12.29 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 1 - searching around the restaurant at night for food scraps.

Wild Boar Sus scrofa
2019.01.29 Mandai Rd. Singapore 1; 2019.01.31 Pulau Ubin 1; Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 3 ad, 1 2/5 grown pull; 2019.12.27 Tembeling River 11; 2019.12.28 Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara 2; 2019.01.03 Sungei Buloh 2 male

Mouse Deer Tragulus kanchil
2019.12.30 Bumbun Tahan, Taman Negara 1 male, 1 heard. Seen from just before day break and followed for around half an hour. Very cofiding and could be studied at close quarters. Was “drumming” on the forest floor with the hind legs, producing a sound which was then answered (?) by an animal inside the forest. Would flick the tail, and now and then sit dow - it seemed like it was scent marking the forest floor.

Lesser Mouse Deer, Bumbun Tahan.

Southern Red Muntjac (Barking Deer) Muntiacus muntjak
2019.12.29 Bumbun Tabing, Taman Negara 1 - out at the salt lick eating mud in broad daylight. This is not the species occuring in India, Thailand etc. but a species endemic to the Sunda Region.

Sambar Rusa unicolor
2019.12.28 Bumbun Tahan 2 – upon my arrival to the hide (ca 22:00 pm) a group of noisy tourists on the upper floor were effectively preventing any sort of wildlife from venturing out in the open. Soon they left, though, and almost immediately two pairs of shining eyes came out of the forest.


REPTILES

Saltwater Crocodile Crocodylus porosus
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 3

Malayan Water-Monitor Varanus salvator
2019.01.19 Gardens by the Bay, Singapore 4; 2019.01.29 Singapore Zoo 1

Monitor sp Varanus sp
Quite common in Singapore. Three species occur and as I understand it the two commoner species are Clouded Monitor and Malayan Water-Monitor. The best distinguishing feature is the position of the nostrils. On Malayan they are situated close to the snout, while on Clouded they are positioned mid way between the snout and the eyes.

Flying Lizard sp Draco sp
2019.12.28 Canopy-walk 1

Rat Snake/Red-tailed Racer
2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 1 – a big, ca 2 m, brown-gray snake.

Wagler's Pit-Viper Tropidolaemus wagleri
2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 1 male; 2019.12.25 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1 male

Common House Gecko Hemidactylus frennatus
A very common gecko in buildings, coming out to hunt at night on walls etc.


AMPHIBIANS

Common Southeast Asian Treefrog Polypedates leucomystax
Common at Mutiara Resort, Taman Negara, very vocal and seen on one occation.

FISH



















Beaked Butterflyfish Chelmon rostratus
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 2

Eight-banded Butterflyfish Chastodon octofasciatus
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan common

Six-banded Angelfish Pomacanthus sextriatus
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 1 ad

Indo-Pacific Sergeant Abudefduf vaigiensis
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan common

Tomato Anemonefish Amphirion frenatus
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 10+



















Clark's Anemonefish Amphirion clarkii
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 4

Black-axil-/Blue-green Chromis
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 1+

Yellow Chromis Chromis analis
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 1+

Black Damsel Neoglyphidodon melas
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan common – both ad and juv

Yellow-cheek Tuskfish Choerodon anchorago
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 1

Rabbitfish sp Siganus sp
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 1 – maybe vulpinus

Squirrelfish sp Sargocentron sp
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan common

Spotted Garden-Eel Heteroconger hassi
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 1 and several holes nearby.

Carpet-Eel Blenny
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 1

Cardinalfish sp
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan common, possibly Rifle Cardinalfish.

Blue-spot Damsel Pomacentrus grammorhynchus
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan 1+

Blue-spotted Mudskipper Boleophthalmus boddarti
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh 2

Gold-spotted Mudskipper Boleophthalmus chrysospilos
2019.01.31 Pulau Ubin 1+

Archerfish Toxotes jaculatrix
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh common – photo; 2019.01.31 Pulau Ubin ferry crossing 2

Stripe-nosed Halfbeak Zenarchopterus buffonis
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh common

Pygmy Halfbeak Dermogenys colettei
2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore 1

Spotted Green Pufferfish Tetradon nigroviridis
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh common

Common Snake-head Channa striata
2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore ca 7

Elegant Rasbora Rasbora elegans
2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore ca 10

Saddle Barb Barbosa banksi
2019.01.31 Windsor Nature Park, Singapore ca 5


CORALS and SEA ANEMONES

A variety of Coral species seen 2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan. Among these Staghorn Corals, Brain Corals etc. Also at least two species of Sea Anemones.


SPIDERS

Golden Orb-web Spider Nephila sp
2019.01.25 Bukit Timah 2


CRUSTACEANS

Barnacle sp Lepadiformes sp
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan, a cluster floating about attached to a tooth brush! White “head” with orange edge around the opening from where the black legs protruded.

Additionally all sorts of crabs were seen, not least on the mudflats of Bintan. Especially numerous were tiny Hermit Crabs. In quite large burrows big crabs with skye blue claws were hiding, and here and there Fiddler Crabs scurried about. At each low tide the mud flats would be invaded by locals collecting shellfish and crustaceans. Some of their findings were on display in aquariums at the hotel restaurant: Mantis Shrimps.

WORMS

Leech sp
2019.01.27 Panti Forest, Old Bunkertrail 1; 2019.01.28 Panti Forest, New Bunkertrail 6


MOLLUSCS

Rodong Snail Telescopium telescopium
Also called Telescope Snail.
2019.01.30 Sungei Buloh extremely numerous.

African Giant Snail Lissachatina fulica
Feral, invasive species seen commonly in Singapore.

Tridacna sp
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan common

ECHINODERMATA

Sea Cucumber sp
2019.01.31 Pulau Ubin 1

Diadema sp
2019.01.22 Pulau Beralas, Bintan common